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Zuan Yan Case Study

This article is about the historical Buddhist monk. For the fictional character based on him, see Tang Sanzang. For the 2016 film, see Xuanzang (film).

Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuánzàng; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-tsang; Mandarin:[ɕɥɛ̌ntsâŋ]; fl. c. 602–664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.[1][2] Born in what is now Henan province around 602, from boyhood he took to reading religious books, including the Chinese classics and the writings of ancient sages.

While residing in the city of Luoyang (in Henan in Central China), Xuanzang was ordained as a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) at the age of thirteen. Due to the political and social unrest caused by the fall of the Sui dynasty, he went to Chengdu in Sichuan, where he was ordained as a bhikṣu (full monk) at the age of twenty. He later travelled throughout China in search of sacred books of Buddhism. At length, he came to Chang'an, then under the peaceful rule of Emperor Taizong of Tang, where Xuanzang developed the desire to visit India. He knew about Faxian's visit to India and, like him, was concerned about the incomplete and misinterpreted nature of the Buddhist texts that had reached China.[3]

He became famous for his seventeen-year overland journey to India (including Nalanda), which is recorded in detail in the classic Chinese text Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, which in turn provided the inspiration for the novel Journey to the West written by Wu Cheng'en during the Ming dynasty, around nine centuries after Xuanzang's death.[4]

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology[edit]

NamesXuanzangTang SanzangXuanzang SanzangXuanzang DashiTang Seng
Traditional
Chinese
玄奘唐三藏玄奘三藏玄奘大師唐僧
Simplified
Chinese
玄奘唐三藏玄奘三藏玄奘大师唐僧
PinyinXuánzàngTáng SānzàngXuánzàng SānzàngXuánzàng DàshīTáng Sēng
Wade–GilesHsüan-tsangT'ang San-tsangHsüan-tsang
San-tsang
Hsüan-tsang
Ta-shih
T'ang Seng
Jyutping
(Cantonese)
Jyun4 Zong6Tong4 Saam1
Zong6
Jyun4 Zong6
Saam1 Zong6
Jyun4 Zong6
Daai6 Si1
Tong4 Zang1
VietnameseHuyền TrangĐường Tam
Tạng
Huyền Trang
Tam Tạng
Huyền Trang
Đại Sư
Đường Tăng
JapaneseGenjōTō-SanzōGenjō-sanzōGenjō-daishiTōsō
KoreanHyeonjangDang-samjangHyeonjang-samjangHyeonjang-daesaDangseung
MeaningTang Dynasty
Tripiṭaka Master
Tripiṭaka Master
Xuanzang
Great Master
Xuanzang
Tang Dynasty Monk

Less common romanizations of "Xuanzang" include Hyun Tsan, Hhuen Kwan, Hiouen Thsang, Hiuen Tsang, Hiuen Tsiang, Hsien-tsang, Hsyan-tsang, Hsuan Chwang, Huan Chwang, Hsuan Tsiang, Hwen Thsang, Hsüan Chwang, Hhüen Kwān, Xuan Cang, Xuan Zang, Shuen Shang, Yuan Chang, Yuan Chwang, and Yuen Chwang. Hsüan, Hüan, Huan and Chuang are also found. The sound written x in pinyin and hs in Wade–Giles, which represents the s- or sh-like [ɕ] in today's Mandarin, was previously pronounced as the h-like [x] in early Mandarin, which accounts for the archaic transliterations with h.

Another form of his official style was "Yuanzang," written 元奘. It is this form that accounts for such variants as Yuan Chang, Yuan Chwang, and Yuen Chwang.[5]

Tang Monk (Tang Seng) is also transliterated /Thang Seng/.[6]

Another of Xuanzang's standard aliases is Sanzang Fashi (simplified Chinese: 三藏法师; traditional Chinese: 三藏法師; pinyin: Sānzàngfǎshī; literally: "Sanzang Dharma (or Law) Teacher"): 法 being a Chinese translation for Sanskrit "Dharma" or Pali/PakritDhamma, the implied meaning being "Buddhism".

"Sanzang" is the Chinese term for the Buddhist canon, or Tripiṭaka, and in some English-language fiction and English translations of Journey to the West, Xuanzang is addressed as "Tripitaka."[citation needed]

Early life[edit]

Xuanzang was born Chen Hui (or Chen Yi) around 602 in Chenhe Village, Goushi Town (Chinese: 緱氏鎮), Luozhou (near present-day Luoyang, Henan) and died on 5 February 664[7] in Yuhua Palace (玉華宮, in present-day Tongchuan, Shaanxi). His family was noted for its erudition for generations, and Xuanzang was the youngest of four children. His ancestor was Chen Shi (陳寔, 104-186), a minister of the Eastern Han dynasty. His great-grandfather Chen Qin (陳欽) served as the prefect of Shangdang (上黨; present-day Changzhi, Shanxi) during the Eastern Wei; his grandfather Chen Kang (陳康) was a professor in the Taixue (Imperial Academy) during the Northern Qi. His father Chen Hui (陳惠) was a conservative Confucian who served as the magistrate of Jiangling County during the Sui dynasty, but later gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the political turmoil that gripped China towards the end of the Sui. According to traditional biographies, Xuanzang displayed a superb intelligence and earnestness, amazing his father by his careful observance of the Confucian rituals at the age of eight. Along with his brothers and sister, he received an early education from his father, who instructed him in classical works on filial piety and several other canonical treatises of orthodox Confucianism.

Although his household was essentially Confucian, at a young age, Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk like one of his elder brothers. After the death of his father in 611, he lived with his older brother Chén Sù (Chinese: 陳素) (later known as Zhǎng jié Chinese: 長捷) for five years at Jingtu Monastery (Chinese: 淨土寺) in Luoyang, supported by the Sui state. During this time he studied Mahayana as well as various early Buddhist schools, preferring the former.

In 618, the Sui Dynasty collapsed and Xuanzang and his brother fled to Chang'an, which had been proclaimed as the capital of the Tang dynasty, and thence southward to Chengdu, Sichuan. Here the two brothers spent two or three years in further study in the monastery of Kong Hui, including the Abhidharma-kośa Śāstra. When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious knowledge.

Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of twenty. The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time prompted Xuanzang to decide to go to India and study in the cradle of Buddhism. He subsequently left his brother and returned to Chang'an to study foreign languages and to continue his study of Buddhism. He began his mastery of Sanskrit in 626, and probably also studied Tocharian. During this time, Xuanzang also became interested in the metaphysical Yogacara school of Buddhism.

Pilgrimage[edit]

In 627, Xuanzang reportedly had a dream that convinced him to journey to India. Tang China and the Göktürks were at war at the time and Emperor Taizong of Tang had prohibited foreign travel. Xuanzang persuaded some Buddhist guards at Yumen Pass and slipped out of the empire through Liangzhou (Gansu) and Qinghai in 629.[8] He subsequently travelled across the Gobi Desert to Kumul (modern Hami City), thence following the Tian Shan westward.

He arrived in Turpan in 630. Here he met the king of Turpan, a Buddhist who equipped him further for his travels with letters of introduction and valuables to serve as funds. The hottest mountain in China, the Flaming Mountains, is located in Turpan and was depicted in the Journey to the West.

Moving further westward, Xuanzang escaped robbers to reach Karasahr, then toured the non-Mahayana monasteries of Kucha. Further west he passed Aksu before turning northwest to cross the Tian Shan's Bedel Pass into modern Kyrgyzstan. He skirted Issyk Kul before visiting Tokmak on its northwest, and met the great Khagan of the Göktürks,[9] whose relationship to the Tang emperor was friendly at the time. After a feast, Xuanzang continued west then southwest to Tashkent, capital of modern Uzbekistan. From here, he crossed the desert further west to Samarkand. In Samarkand, which was under Persian influence, the party came across some abandoned Buddhist temples and Xuanzang impressed the local king with his preaching. Setting out again to the south, Xuanzang crossed a spur of the Pamirs and passed through the famous Iron Gates. Continuing southward, he reached the Amu Darya and Termez, where he encountered a community of more than a thousand Buddhist monks.

Further east he passed through Kunduz, where he stayed for some time to witness the funeral rites of Prince Tardu,[10] who had been poisoned. Here he met the monk Dharmasimha, and on the advice of the late Tardu made the trip westward to Balkh (modern Afghanistan), to see the Buddhist sites and relics, especially the Nava Vihara, which he described as the westernmost vihara in the world. Here Xuanzang also found over 3,000 non-Mahayana monks, including Prajnakara (般若羯羅 or 慧性),[11] a monk with whom Xuanzang studied early Buddhist scriptures. He acquired the important text of the Mahāvibhāṣa (Chinese: 大毗婆沙論) here, which he later translated into Chinese.

Prajñakara then accompanied the party southward to Bamyan, where Xuanzang met the king and saw tens of non-Mahayana monasteries, in addition to the two large Buddhas of Bamiyan carved out of the rockface. The party then resumed their travel eastward, crossing the Shibar Pass and descending to the regional capital of Kapisi (about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of modern Kabul), which sported over 100 monasteries and 6000 monks, mostly Mahayana. This was part of the fabled old land of Gandhara. Xuanzang took part in a religious debate here, and demonstrated his knowledge of many Buddhist schools. Here he also met the first Jains and Hindu of his journey. He pushed on to Adinapur[12] (later named Jalalabad) and Laghman, where he considered himself to have reached India. The year was 630.

India[edit]

Xuanzang left Adinapur, which had few Buddhist monks, but many stupas and monasteries. His travels included, passing through Hunza and the Khyber Pass to the east, reaching the former capital of Gandhara, Purushapura (Peshawar), on the other side. Peshawar was nothing compared to its former glory, and Buddhism was declining in the region. Xuanzang visited a number of stupas around Peshawar, notably the KanishkaStupa. This stupa was built just southeast of Peshawar, by a former king of the city. In 1908, it was rediscovered by D.B. Spooner with the help of Xuanzang's account.

Xuanzang left Peshawar and travelled northeast to the Swat Valley. Reaching Oḍḍiyāna, he found 1,400-year-old monasteries, that had previously supported 18,000 monks. The remnant monks were of the Mahayana school. Xuanzang continued northward and into the Buner Valley, before doubling back via Shahbaz Garhi to cross the Indus river at Hund. He visited Taxila which was desolate and half-ruined, and found most of its sangharamas still ruined and desolate with the state having become a dependency of Kashmir with the local leaders fighting amongst themselves for power. Only a few monks remained there. He noted that it had some time previously been a subject of Kapisa. He went to Kashmir in 631 where he met a talented monk Samghayasas (僧伽耶舍), and studied there. In Kashmir, he found himself in another center of Buddhist culture and describes that there were over 100 monasteries and over 5,000 monks in the area. Between 632 and early 633, he studied with various monks, including 14 months with Vinītaprabha (毘膩多缽臘婆 or 調伏光), 4 months with Candravarman (旃達羅伐摩 or 月胃), and "a winter and half a spring" with Jayagupta (闍耶毱多). During this time, Xuanzang wrote about the Fourth Buddhist council that took place nearby, ca. 100 AD, under the order of King Kanishka of Kushana. He visited Chiniot and Lahore as well and provided the earliest writings available on the ancient cities. In 634, Xuanzang arrived in Matipura (秣底補羅), known as Mandawar today.[11][13][14][15][16]

In 634, he went east to Jalandhar in eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly non-Mahayana monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river. Mathura had 2,000 monks of both major Buddhist branches, despite being Hindu-dominated. Xuanzang travelled up the river to Shrughna, also mentioned in the works of Udyotakara, before crossing eastward to Matipura, where he arrived in 635, having crossed the river Ganges. At Matipura Monastery, Xuanzang studied under Mitrasena.[17] From here, he headed south to Sankasya (Kapitha, then onward to Kannauj, the grand capital of the Empire of Harsha under the northern Indian emperor Harsha. It is believed he also visited Govishan present day Kashipur in the Harsha era, in 636, Xuanzang encountered 100 monasteries of 10,000 monks (both Mahayana and non-Mahayana), and was impressed by the king's patronage of both scholarship and Buddhism. Xuanzang spent time in the city studying early Buddhist scriptures, before setting off eastward again for Ayodhya (Saketa), homeland of the Yogacara school. Xuanzang now moved south to Kausambi (Kosam), where he had a copy made from an important local image of the Buddha.

Xuanzang now returned northward to Shravasti Bahraich, travelled through Terai in the southern part of modern Nepal (here he found deserted Buddhist monasteries) and thence to Kapilavastu, his last stop before Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha.[18]

In 637, Xuanzang set out from Lumbini to Kusinagara, the site of Buddha's death, before heading southwest to the deer park at Sarnath where Buddha gave his first sermon, and where Xuanzang found 1,500 resident monks. Travelling eastward, at first via Varanasi, Xuanzang reached Vaisali, Pataliputra (Patna) and Bodh Gaya. He was then accompanied by local monks to Nalanda, the greatest Indian university of Indian state of Bihar, where he spent at least the next two years, He visited Champa Monastery, Bhagalpur.[19][20] He was in the company of several thousand scholar-monks, whom he praised. Xuanzang studied logic, grammar, Sanskrit, and the Yogacara school of Buddhism during his time at Nalanda. René Grousset notes that it was at Nalanda (where an "azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade") that Xuanzang met the venerable Silabhadra, the monastery's superior.[21] Silabhadra had dreamt of Xuanzang's arrival and that it would help spread far and wide the Holy Law.[22] Grousset writes: "The Chinese pilgrim had finally found the omniscient master, the incomparable metaphysician who was to make known to him the ultimate secrets of the idealist systems...The founders of Mahayana idealism, Asanga and Vasubandhu...Dignaga...Dharmapala had in turn trained Silabhadra. Silabhadra was thus in a position to make available to the Sino-Japanese world the entire heritage of Buddhist idealism, and the Siddhi Xuanzang's great philosophical treatise...is none other than the Summa of this doctrine, the fruit of seven centuries of Indian [Buddhist] thought."[23]

From Nalanda, Xuanzang travelled through several kingdoms, including Pundranagara, to the capital of Pundravardhana, identified with modern Mahasthangarh, in present-day Bangladesh. There Xuanzang found 20 monasteries with over 3,000 monks studying both the Hinayana and the Mahayana. One of them was the Vāśibhã Monastery (Po Shi Po), where he found over 700 Mahayana monks from all over East India.[24][25] He also visited Somapura Mahavihara at Paharpur in the district of Naogaon, in modern-day Bangladesh.

Xuanzang turned southward and travelled to Andhradesa to visit the Viharas at Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. He stayed at Amaravati and studied 'Abhidhammapitakam'.[26] He observed that there were many Viharas at Amaravati and some of them were deserted. He later proceeded to Kanchi, the imperial capital of Pallavas and a strong centre of Buddhism. He continued traveling to Nasik, Ajanta, Malwa, from there he went to Multan and Pravata before returning to Nalanda again.[27]

At the invitation of Hindu king Kumar Bhaskar Varman, he went east to the ancient city of Pragjyotishpura in the kingdom of Kamarupa after crossing the Karatoya and spent three months in the region.Before going to Kamarupa he visited Sylhet what is now a modern city Of Bangladesh.He gives detailed account about culture and people of Sylhet. Later, the king escorted Xuanzang back to the Kannauj at the request of king Harshavardhana, who was an ally of Kumar Bhaskar Varman, to attend a great Buddhist Assembly there which was attended by both of the kings as well as several other kings from neighbouring kingdoms, buddhist monks, Brahmans and Jains. King Harsha invited Xuanjang to Kumbh Mela in Prayag where he witnessed king Harsha's generous distribution of gifts to the poor.[28]

After visiting Prayag he returned to Kannauj where he was given a grand farewell by king Harsha. Traveling through the Khyber Pass of the Hindu Kush, Xuanzang passed through Kashgar, Khotan, and Dunhuang on his way back to China. He arrived in the capital, Chang'an, on the seventh day of the first month of 645, 16 years after he left Chinese territory, and a great procession celebrated his return.[29]

Return to China[edit]

On his return to China in AD 645, Xuanzang was greeted with much honor but he refused all high civil appointments offered by the still-reigning emperor, Emperor Taizong of Tang. Instead, he retired to a monastery and devoted his energy in translating Buddhist texts until his death in AD 664. According to his biography, he returned with, "over six hundred Mahayana and Hinayana texts, seven statues of the Buddha and more than a hundred sarira relics." In celebration of Xuanzang's extraordinary achievement in translating the Buddhist texts, Emperor Gaozong of Tang ordered renowned Tang calligrapher Chu Suiliang (褚遂良) and inscriber Wan Wenshao (萬文韶) to install two stele stones, collectively known as The Emperor’s Preface to the Sacred Teachings (雁塔聖教序), at the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda.[31]

Chinese Buddhism (influence)[edit]

During Xuanzang's travels, he studied with many famous Buddhist masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at Nalanda. When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit texts. With the emperor's support, he set up a large translation bureau in Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), drawing students and collaborators from all over East Asia. He is credited with the translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His strongest personal interest in Buddhism was in the field of Yogācāra (瑜伽行派), or Consciousness-only (唯識).

The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school (法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive for a long time, its theories regarding perception, consciousness, Karma, rebirth, etc. found their way into the doctrines of other more successful schools. Xuanzang's closest and most eminent student was Kuiji (窺基) who became recognized as the first patriarch of the Faxiang school. Xuanzang's logic, as described by Kuiji, was often misunderstood by scholars of Chinese Buddhism because they lack the necessary background in Indian logic.[32] Another important disciple was the Korean monk Woncheuk.

Xuanzang was known for his extensive but careful translations of Indian Buddhist texts to Chinese, which have enabled subsequent recoveries of lost Indian Buddhist texts from the translated Chinese copies. He is credited with writing or compiling the Cheng Weishi Lun as a commentary on these texts. His translation of the Heart Sutra became and remains the standard in all East Asian Buddhist sects; as well, this translation of the Heart Sutra was generally admired within the traditional Chinese gentry and is still widely respected as numerous renowned past and present Chinese calligraphers have penned its texts as their artworks.[33] He also founded the short-lived but influential Faxiang school of Buddhism. Additionally, he was known for recording the events of the reign of the northern Indian emperor, Harsha.

The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra[edit]

Xuanzang returned to China with three copies of the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra.[34] Xuanzang, with a team of disciple translators, commenced translating the voluminous work in 660 CE, using all three versions to ensure the integrity of the source documentation.[34] Xuanzang was being encouraged by a number of his disciple translators to render an abridged version. After a suite of dreams quickened his decision, Xuanzang determined to render an unabridged, complete volume, faithful to the original of 600 chapters.[35]

Autobiography and biography[edit]

In 646, under the Emperor's request, Xuanzang completed his book Great Tang Records on the Western Regions (大唐西域記), which has become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central Asia and India.[36] This book was first translated into French by the Sinologist Stanislas Julien in 1857.

There was also a biography of Xuanzang written by the monk Huili (慧立). Both books were first translated into English by Samuel Beal, in 1884 and 1911 respectively.[37][38] An English translation with copious notes by Thomas Watters was edited by T.W. Rhys Davids and S.W. Bushell, and published posthumously in London in 1905.

Legacy[edit]

A half-monk at thirteen
restless to find the truth
one night I saw in my dream

an azure pool
a blue lotus
dazzling red flowers

thick mango groves
wrinkled face of a Bhikchhu
I set out for Yintu

secretly escaping the Middle Kingdom
at night, like the young Siddhartha
against the Emperor’s diktats

I travelled alone for years
a fakir along the Silk Road
hungry, naked but blessed...

"Hiuen Tsang: A Poem by Abhay K.[39]

Xuanzang's work, the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, is the longest and most detailed account of the countries of Central and South Asia that has been bestowed upon posterity by a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim. While his main purpose was to obtain Buddhist books and to receive instruction on Buddhism while in India, he ended up doing much more. He has preserved the records of political and social aspects of the lands he visited.

His record of the places visited by him in Bengal — mainly Raktamrittika near Karnasuvarna, Pundranagara and its environs, Samatata , Tamralipti and Harikela— have been very helpful in the recording of the archaeological history of Bengal what is now . His account has also shed welcome light on the history of 7th century Bengal, especially the Gauda kingdom under Shashanka, although at times he can be quite partisan.

Xuanzang obtained and translated 657 Sanskrit Buddhist works. He received the best education on Buddhism he could find throughout India. Much of this activity is detailed in the companion volume to Xiyu Ji, the Biography of Xuanzang written by Huili, entitled the Life of Xuanzang.

His version of the Heart Sutra is the basis for all Chinese commentaries on the sutra, and recitations throughout China, Korea and Japan.[40] His style was, by Chinese standards, cumbersome and overly literal, and marked by scholarly innovations in terminology; usually, where another version by the earlier translator Kumārajīva exists, Kumārajīva's is more popular.[40]

Legacy In Fiction[edit]

Xuanzang's journey along the so-called Silk Road, and the legends that grew up around it, inspired the Ming novel Journey to the West, one of the great classics of Chinese literature. The fictional counterpart Tang Sanzang is the reincarnation of the Golden Cicada, a disciple of Gautama Buddha, and is protected on his journey by three powerful disciples. One of them, the monkey, was a popular favorite and profoundly influenced Chinese culture and contemporary Japanesemanga and anime (including the popular Dragon Ball and Saiyuki series), and became well known in the West by Arthur Waley's translation and later the cult TV series Monkey.

In the Yuan Dynasty, there was also a play by Wu Changling (吳昌齡) about Xuanzang obtaining scriptures.

Relics[edit]

A skull relic purported to be that of Xuanzang was held in the Temple of Great Compassion, Tianjin until 1956 when it was taken to Nalanda - allegedly by the Dalai Lama - and presented to India. The relic was in the Patna Museum for a long time but was moved to a newly built memorial hall in Nalanda in 2007.[41] The Wenshu Monastery in Chengdu, Sichuan province also claims to have part of Xuanzang's skull.

Part of Xuanzang's remains were taken from Nanjing by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army in 1942, and are now enshrined at Yakushi-ji in Nara, Japan.[42]

Works[edit]

  • Watters, Thomas (1904). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D. Vol.1. Royal Asiatic Society, London. Volume 2. Reprint. Hesperides Press, 1996. ISBN 978-1-4067-1387-9.
  • Beal, Samuel (1884). Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London. 1884. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969. Vol. 1, Vol. 2
  • Julien, Stanislas, (1857/1858). Mémoires sur les contrées occidentales, L'Imprimerie impériale, Paris. Vol.1Vol.2
  • Li, Rongxi (translator) (1995). The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^Wriggins, Sally (27 November 2003). The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang (1 ed.). Washington DC: Westview press (Penguin). ISBN 0813365996. 
  2. ^Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education. p. 563. 
  3. ^Wriggins, Sally (27 November 2003). The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. New York: Westview (Penguin). ISBN 0813365996. 
  4. ^Cao Shibang (2006). "Fact vs. Fiction: From Record of the Western Regions to Journey to the West". In Wang Chichhung. Dust in the Wind: Retracing Dharma Master Xuanzang's Western Pilgrimage. p. 62. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  5. ^Rhys Davids, T. W. (1904). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India 629–645 A.D. London: Royal Asiatic Society. pp. xi–xii. 
  6. ^Christie 123, 126, 130, and 141
  7. ^Wriggins 1996, pp. 7, 193
  8. ^"Note sur la chronologie du voyage de Xuanzang." Étienne de la Vaissière. Journal Asiatique, Vol. 298, 1. (2010), pp. 157-168.[1] Eh? Liangzhou, Gansu, Qinghai and Gobi are all east of Yumen.
  9. ^Tong Yabghu Qaghan or possibly his son
  10. ^Baumer,Hist Cent Asia,2,200 says Tardush Shad (see Shad (prince)), eldest son of Tong Yabghu Qaghan advanced as far as the Indus. In 630 his son Ishbara Yabghu had his new wife poison him, 'which Xuanzang witnessed'.
  11. ^ ab"玄奘法師年譜". ccbs.ntu.edu.tw. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  12. ^Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and monthly record (Great Britain) Volume 1, page 43 (Science) 1879.
  13. ^John Marshall. A Guide to Taxila. Cambridge University Press. pp. 39, 46. 
  14. ^Elizabeth Errington, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis. Persepolis to the Punjab: Exploring Ancient Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. British Museum Press. p. 134. 
  15. ^Stephen Gosch, Peter Stearns. Premodern Travel in World History. Routledge. p. 89. 
  16. ^trans. by Samuel Beal. Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World. Motilal Banarasidass. 
  17. ^Men and Thought in Ancient India by Radhakumud Mookerji, 1912 edition published by McMillan and Co., reprinted by Motilal Banarasidass (1996) page 169
  18. ^Nakamura, Hajime (2000). Gotama Buddha. Kosei. pp. 47, 53–54. ISBN 4-333-01893-5. 
  19. ^https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/exhibit/fgKCLo03OYLgIg
  20. ^http://monastic-asia.wikidot.com/champa
  21. ^René Grousset. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. JA Underwood (trans) Orion Press. New York. 1971. p159-160.
  22. ^Rene Grousset. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. JA Underwood (trans) Orion Press. New York. 1971.p161
  23. ^Rene Grousset. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. JA Underwood (trans) Orion Press. New York. 1971 p161
  24. ^Watters II (1996), pp. 164-165.
  25. ^Li (1996), pp. 298-299
  26. ^"Xuan Zang stayed in Vijayawada to study Buddhist scriptures". 
  27. ^
Xuanzang's former residence in Chenhe Village near Luoyang, Henan.
Xuanzang Memorial Hall in Nalanda, Bihar, India.
Travel route of Xuanzang in India
Xuan Zang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century
  1. ^There is some dispute over the Chinese character for Xuanzang's given name at birth. Historical records provide two different Chinese characters, 褘 and 禕, both are similar in writing except that the former has one more stroke than the latter. Their pronunciations in pinyin are also different: the former is pronounced as Huī while the latter is pronounced as . See here and here. (Both sources are in Chinese.)

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Brief Biography

Dr. Jifeng Xuan is a professor at School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, China. Wuhan University was founded in 1893, which is located in a central city, Wuhan. The city of Wuhan has a long history of 3,500 years with a population of over 10 million people. Here is his official homepage at Wuhan University. He is a member of CSTAR - Centre of Software Testing, Analysis and Reliability.

He was a postdoctoral researcher at SPIRALS Team in INRIA Lille - Nord Europe in France. He co-worked with Dr. Martin Monperrus and Prof. Lionel Seinturier. He received the bachelor degree and the PhD degree at OSCAR Lab, School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, China. His PhD supervisor is Prof. He Jiang. Before university, he graduated from Harbin No. 3 High School, Harbin, China. He is a member of ACM, IEEE, and CCF (China Computer Federation).

His research interests include Software Testing and Debugging, Software Data Analysis, and Search Based Software Engineering.

His research group is looking for PhD students and master students, who have interests in software engineering. Self-motivated bachelor students are also warmly welcomed. Any interest or question, please contact via emails on the page top.

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Publications

Selected publications

  • Jifeng Xuan, Matias Martinez, Favio DeMarco, Maxime Clement, Sebastian Lamelas Marcote, Thomas Durieux, Daniel Le Berre, Martin Monperrus. Nopol: Automatic Repair of Conditional Statement Bugs in Java Programs. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 34-55. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Yan Hu, Zhilei Ren, Weiqin Zou, Zhongxuan Luo, Xindong Wu. Towards Effective Bug Triage with Software Data Reduction Techniques. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 27, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 264-280. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Zhilei Ren, Zhongxuan Luo. Solving the Large Scale Next Release Problem with a Backbone Based Multilevel Algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 38, no. 5, Sept.-Oct. 2012, pp. 1195-1212. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Martin Monperrus. Test Case Purification for Improving Fault Localization. Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE 2014), Hong Kong, China. Nov. 16-22, 2014, pp. 52-63. [PDF], [ACM]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Zhilei Ren, Weiqin Zou. Developer Prioritization in Bug Repositories. Proceedings of 34th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2012), Zurich, Switzerland. June 2-9, 2012, pp. 25-35. [PDF], [IEEE]

Journal papers

  • Jifeng Xuan, Matias Martinez, Favio DeMarco, Maxime Clement, Sebastian Lamelas Marcote, Thomas Durieux, Daniel Le Berre, Martin Monperrus. Nopol: Automatic Repair of Conditional Statement Bugs in Java Programs. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 34-55. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Zongzheng Chi, Jifeng Xuan, Zhilei Ren, Xiaoyuan Xie, He Guo. Multi-Level Random Walk for Software Test Suite Reduction. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, vol. 11, no. 2, May, 2017, pp. 24-33. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Hongyu Zhang, Zhilei Ren. Developer Recommendation on Bug Commenting: A Ranking Approach for the Developer Crowd. Science China Information Science, vol. 60, 2017, pp. 072105:1–072105:18. [PDF], [Springer]
  • Matias Martinez, Thomas Durieux, Romain Sommerard, Jifeng Xuan, Martin Monperrus. Automatic Repair of Real Bugs in Java: A Large-Scale Experiment on the Defects4J Dataset. Empirical Software Engineering, vol. 22, no. 4, Aug. 2017, pp. 1936-1964. [PDF], [Springer]
  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Shuwei Zhang, Zhongxuan Luo. Feature Based Problem Hardness Understanding for Requirements Engineering. Science China Information Science, vol. 60, no. 3, 2017, pp. 032105:1-032105:20. [PDF], [Springer]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Benoit Cornu, Matias Martinez, Benoit Baudry, Lionel Seinturier, Martin Monperrus. B-Refactoring: Automatic Test Code Refactoring to Improve Dynamic Analysis. Information and Software Technology, vol. 76, Aug. 2016, pp. 65-80. [PDF], [Elsevier]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Zhilei Ren, Ziyuan Wang, Xiaoyuan Xie, He Jiang. Progress on Approaches to Automatic Program Repair. Journal of Software, vol. 27, no. 4, Apr. 2016, pp. 771-784 (Chinese article with English abstract). [PDF], [Press]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Yan Hu, Zhilei Ren, Weiqin Zou, Zhongxuan Luo, Xindong Wu. Towards Effective Bug Triage with Software Data Reduction Techniques. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 27, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 264-280. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Zhilei Ren, Youxi Wu, Xindong Wu. Misleading Classification. Science China Information Science, Jan 2014, pp. 1-17. [PDF], [Springer]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Zhilei Ren, Zhongxuan Luo. Solving the Large Scale Next Release Problem with a Backbone Based Multilevel Algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 38, no. 5, Sept.-Oct. 2012, pp. 1195-1212. [PDF], [IEEE], [Supplement Material]
  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Yan Hu, Zhongxuan Luo. New Insights Into Diversification of Hyper-Heuristics. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, vol. 44, no. 10, Oct. 2014, pp. 1746-1761. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Yan Hu, He Jiang. Debt-Prone Bugs: Technical Debt in Software Maintenance. International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology, vol. 4, no. 19, 2012, pp. 453-461. [PDF]
  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Zhongxuan Luo. An Accelerated Limit Crossing Based Multilevel Algorithm for the p-Median Problem. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, vol. 42, no. 2, Aug. 2012, pp. 1187-1202. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Zhongxuan Luo. Hyper-Heuristics with Low Level Parameter Adaptation. Evolutionary Computation, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 189-227. [PDF], [MIT Press]

Conference papers

  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Zijiang Yang. Automated Localization for Unreproducible Builds. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2018), Gothenburg, Sweden. May 30-June 3, 2018, to appear. [PDF]
  • Chen Wang, Xiaoyuan Xie, Peng Liang, Jifeng Xuan. Multi-Perspective Visualization to Assist Code Change Review. Proceedings of the 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC 2017), short paper, Nanjing, China. December 4-8, 2017, to appear. [PDF]
  • He Jiang, Xiaochen Li, Zijiang Yang, Jifeng Xuan. What Causes My Test Alarm? Automatic Cause Analysis for Test Alarms in System and Integration Testing. Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2017), Buenos Aires, Argentina. May 20-28, 2017, to appear. [PDF]
  • Yongfeng Gu, Jifeng Xuan, Tieyun Qian. Automatic Reproducible Crash Detection. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Software Analysis, Testing and Evolution (SATE 2016), Kunming, Yunnan. November 3-4, 2016, pp. 48-53. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Xiaoyuan Xie, Zicong Liu, Shuo Song, Zhenyu Chen, Jifeng Xuan, Baowen Xu. Revisit of Automatic Debugging via Human Focus-tracking Analysis. Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2016), Austin, TX, USA. May 14-22, 2016, pp. 808-819. [PDF], [ACM]
  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Yan Hu. Analyzing Inter-objective Relationships: A Case Study of Software Upgradability. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature (PPSN 2016), Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. September 17-21, 2016, pp. 442-452. [PDF], [Springer]
  • Zhou Xu, Jifeng Xuan, Jin Liu, Xiaohui Cui. MICHAC: Defect Prediction via Feature Selection based on Maximal Information Coefficient with Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering. Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (SANER 2016), Osaka, Japan. March 14-18, 2016, pp. 370-381. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Xiaoyuan Xie, Martin Monperrus. Crash Reproduction via Test Case Mutation: Let Existing Test Cases Help. Proceedings of the 10th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2015), NIER track, Bergamo, Italy. Aug. 30-Sep.4, 2015, pp. 910-913. [PDF], [ACM]
  • Jingjian Lin, Jun Yan, Jifeng Xuan. Automatic Detection of Parameter Shielding for Test Case Generation. Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE 2015), Short paper, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Jul. 6-8, 2015, pp. 571-574. [PDF], [KSI]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Martin Monperrus. Test Case Purification for Improving Fault Localization. Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (FSE 2014), Hong Kong, China. Nov. 16-22, 2014, pp. 52-63. [PDF], [ACM]
  • Jifeng Xuan, Martin Monperrus. Learning to Combine Multiple Ranking Metrics for Fault Localization. Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME 2014), Victoria, BC, Canada. Sept. 28-Oct. 3, 2014, pp. 191-200. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Hao Hu, Hongyu Zhang, Jifeng Xuan, Weigang Sun. Effective Bug Triage based on Historical Bug-Fix Information. Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2014), Naples, Italy. Nov. 3-6, 2014, pp. 122-132. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Favio Demarco, Jifeng Xuan, Daniel Le Berre, Martin Monperrus. Automatic Repair of Buggy If Conditions and Missing Preconditions with SMT. Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Constraints in Software Testing, Verification, and Analysis (CSTVA 2014), Hyderabad, India. May 31, 2014, pp. 30-39. [PDF], [ACM]
  • Zhilei Ren, He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Shuwei Zhang, Zhongxuan Luo. Learning from Evolved Next Release Problem Instances. Proceedings of Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2014), Vancouver, BC, Canada. Poster, July 12-16, 2014. [PDF], [ACM]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Zhilei Ren, Weiqin Zou. Developer Prioritization in Bug Repositories. Proceedings of 34th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2012), Zurich, Switzerland. June 2-9, 2012, pp. 25-35. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • Weiqin Zou, Yan Hu, Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang. Towards Training Set Reduction for Bug Triage. Proceedings of 35th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2011), Munich, Germany. July 18-22, 2011, pp. 576-581. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • He Jiang, Shuyan Zhang, Jifeng Xuan, Youxi Wu. Frequency Distribution based Hyper-Heuristic for the Bin-Packing Problem. Proceedings of 11th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimisation (EvoCop 2011), Torino, Italy. April 27-29, 2011, pp. 118-129. [PDF], [Springer]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Zhilei Ren, Jun Yan, Zhongxuan Luo. Automatic Bug Triage using Semi-Supervised Text Classification. Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE 2010), Redwood City, CA, USA. July 1-3, 2010, pp. 209-214. [PDF]
  • Jifeng Xuan, He Jiang, Zhilei Ren, Yan Hu, Zhongxuan Luo. A Random Walk Based Algorithm for Structural Test Case Generation. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Data Mining (SEDM 2010), Chengdu, China. June 23-25, 2010, pp. 583-588. [PDF], [IEEE]
  • He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Zhilei Ren. Approximate Backbone Based Multilevel Algorithm for Next Release Problem. Proceedings of 12th Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. (GECCO 2010), Portland, Oregon, USA. ACM Press, July 7-11, 2010, pp. 1333-1340. [PDF], [ACM]
  • He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan, Xianchao Zhang. An Approximate Muscle Guided Global Optimization Algorithm for the Three-index Assignment Problem. Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2008), Hongkong, China. IEEE Computer Society, 2008, pp. 2404 - 2410. [PDF], [IEEE]

Book chapters

  • He Jiang, Jifeng Xuan. Backbone Guided Local Search for the Weighted Maximum Satisfiability Problem. (Book chapter in) Evolutionary Computation. Ed., Wellington Pinheiro dos Santos. ISBN 978-953-307-008-7. InTech Press, Vienna, Austria. Oct. 2009, pp. 261-272. [PDF], [InTech]

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Services

  • Program committee co-chair, HASQ 2016 (The 2nd International Workshop on Human and Social Aspect of Software Quality)
  • Program committee co-chair, HSASQ 2015 (International Workshop on Human and Social Aspect of Software Quality)
  • Program committee co-chair, SMART 2017 (International Workshop on Software Modeling, Analysis, Reliability and Testing)
  • Workshop co-chair, ICECCS 2017 (The 22nd International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems)
  • Organizing committee co-chair, CSBSE 2013 (The 2nd Chinese Search Based Software Engineering)
  • Publication chair, IEA/AIE 2012 (The 25th International Conference on Industrial, Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems)
  • Publicity chair, TSA 2016 (The 3rd International Conference on Trustworthy Systems and Their Applications)
  • Program committee member, COMPSAC 2018 (The 42nd IEEE International Conference on Computers, Software, and Applications)
  • Program committee member, WETSoDA 2017 (The 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Design and Architecture)
  • Program committee member, SATE 2017 (Annual Conference on Software Analysis, Testing and Evolution)
  • Program committee member, Internetware 2017 (The 9th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Internetware)
  • Program committee member, SoftwareMining 2017 (The 6th International Workshop on Software Mining)
  • Program committee member, NASAC 2017, English paper track (The 16th National Software Application Conference in China)
  • Program committee member, VISSOFT 2017, NIER and Tool Tracks (The 5th IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization)
  • Program committee member, SATE 2016 (Annual Conference on Software Analysis, Testing and Evolution)
  • Program committee member, NASAC 2016, tool demonstration track (The 15th National Software Application Conference in China)
  • Program committee member, SoftwareMining 2016 (The 5th International Workshop on Software Mining)
  • Program committee member, DSA 2015 (International Workshop on Dependable Software and Applications)
  • Program committee member, ISICA 2009 (The 4th International Symposium on Intelligence Computation and Applications)

Talks

  • Keynote, Test Case Augmentation for Software Bug Detection, Annual Meeting of Software Engineering in Wuhan 2015, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China, Nov. 14, 2015
  • Tutorial, Search Based Software Defect Repair, ECOLE 2017 (The 4th Workshop on Evolutionary Computation and Learning), Xi'an, China, May 19, 2017
  • Invited talk, Program Repair Based Software Quality Assurance, NASAC 2017 (The 16th National Software Application Conference in China, Harbin, China, Nov. 5, 2017
  • Invited talk, Constraint Solving in Program Repair, HCP 2017 (The 1st Workshop on Hard Computational Problems: Representations, Algorithms and Applications, Changchun, China, Jul. 6, 2017
  • Invited talk, Automatic Software Defect Detection and Repair, Lecture by Distinguished Alumni of DUT, Dalian, China, May 5, 2017
  • Invited talk, Test-Suite Based Program Repair for Conditional Statements, ISHCS 2016 (The 6th International Symposium on High Confidence Software), Beijing, China, Dec. 18, 2016
  • Invited talk, Automatic Program Repair for Conditional Statements, Youth Scholar Salon of Software Engineering, Nanjing, China, Aug. 10, 2016
  • Invited talk, Test Augmentation for Software Bug Detection, School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, Dec. 4, 2015
  • Invited talk, Search and Analysis in Open-Source Bug Repositorie, CSBSE 2013 (The 2nd Chinese Search Based Software Engineering), Dalian, China, June 8, 2013
  • Invited talk, Mining Bug Repositories, State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment (Beihang University), Beijing, China, Sept. 23, 2012
  • Invited talk, Backbone Based Multilevel Optimization for the Large Scale Next Release Problem, CSBSE 2012 (The 1th Chinese Search Based Software Engineering), Beijing, China, July 2, 2012
  • Invited talk, Bug Triage using Semi-Supervised Text Classification, State Key Laboratory of Computer Science (Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing, China, April, 2010
  • Talk, Progress on Automatic Program Repair, NASAC 2015 (The 14th National Software Application Conference in China), Wuhan, China, Nov. 7, 2015
  • Talk, Test Case Purification for Improving Fault Localization, FSE 2014 (The 22nd ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering), Hong Kong, China, Nov. 18, 2014
  • Talk, Effective Bug Triage based on Historical Bug-Fix Information, ISSRE 2014 (The 25th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering), Naples, Italy, Nov. 5, 2014
  • Talk, Learning to Combine Multiple Ranking Metrics for Fault Localization, ICSME 2014 (The 30th International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution), Victoria, BC, Canada, Oct. 2, 2014
  • Talk, Automatic Repair of Buggy If Conditions and Missing Preconditions with SMT, CSTVA 2014 (The 6th Workshop on Constraints in Software Testing, Verification, and Analysis), Hyderabad, India, May 31, 2014
  • Talk, Automatic Code Completion, Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing, China, Sept. 28, 2012
  • Talk, Developer Prioritization in Bug Repositories, ICSE 2012 (The 34th International Conference on Software Engineering), Zurich, Switzerland, June 6, 2012
  • Talk, Automatic Bug Triage using Semi-Supervised Text Classification, SEKE 2010 (The 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering), Redwood City, CA, USA, July 1, 2010

Reviewers

  • Reviewer, TSE (IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, TOSEM (ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology)
  • Reviewer, TKDE (IEEE Transactions on Knowledge Discovery and Engineering)
  • Reviewer, TEVC (IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation)
  • Reviewer, TMIS (ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems)
  • Reviewer, EMSE (Empirical Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, JSS (Journal of Systems and Software)
  • Reviewer, JSEP (Journal of Software: Evolution and Process)
  • Reviewer, SCP (Science of Computer Programming)
  • Reviewer, COMLAN (Computer Languages, Systems and Structures)
  • Reviewer, CIM (IEEE Computation Intelligence Magazine)
  • Reviewer, JKSUCIS (Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences)
  • Reviewer, SCIS (Science China Information Science)
  • Reviewer, JCST (Journal of Computer Science and Technology)
  • Reviewer, FCS (Frontiers of Computer Science)
  • Reviewer, Chinese Journal of Computers
  • Reviewer, Journal of Software
  • Reviewer, Acta Automatica Sinica
  • Reviewer, ICFEM 2017 (The 19th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods)
  • Reviewer, TSA 2016 (The 3rd International Conference on Trustworthy Systems and Their Applications)
  • Reviewer, ISSTA 2016 (2016 International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis)
  • Reviewer, DSA 2016 (International Workshop on Dependable Software and Applications)
  • Reviewer, ICSE 2016 (The 38th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, ESEC/FSE 2015 (The 10th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, ICSME 2015 (2015 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution)
  • Reviewer, SANER 2015 (The 22nd IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering)
  • Reviewer, ICSE 2015 (The 37th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, ASWEC 2015 (The 24th Australasian Software Engineering Conference)
  • Reviewer, APSEC 2014 (The 21st Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference)
  • Reviewer, QSIC 2014 (The 14th International Conference on Quality Software)
  • Reviewer, CloudCrypto 2014 (International Workshop on Cloud Security and Cryptography)
  • Reviewer, ICSME 2014 (2014 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution)
  • Reviewer, ASE 2014 (The 29th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, ICSE 2014 (The 36th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering)
  • Reviewer, ICSM 2013 (The 29th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance)
  • Reviewer, IEA/AIE 2012 (The 25th International Conference on Industrial, Engineering & Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems)
  • Reviewer, APSEC 2012 (The 19th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference)
  • Reviewer, ICM 2011 (The International Conference of Information Technology, Computer Engineering and Management Sciences)
  • Reviewer, CSE 2011 (The 14th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering)
  • Reviewer, TASE 2010 (The 4th IEEE International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering)

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Awards

  • 2017, elected by the Chutian Scholar Program of Hubei Provice, China
  • 2015, elected by the Young Talent Development Program of the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) and the China Computer Federation (CCF) link (in Chinese), certificate
  • 2015, elected by the Luojia Young Scholar Program of Wuhan University
  • 2014, awarded by the Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation of the China Computer Federation (CCF) link (in Chinese), certificate
  • 2012, National Scholarship of China for PhD Students
  • 2012, Award of Excellence in Microsoft Research Asia Internship Program
  • 2012, Outstanding PhD Candidate, Dalian University of Technology
  • 2012, ACM SIGSOFT CAPS Funds for supporting conference attendance
  • 2011, First-Class Scholarship of Company by KAI Square, for School of Software, Dalian University of Technology
  • 2009, First-Class Scholarship and Outstanding Master Candidate Student of Dalian University of Technology
  • 2008, Second-Class Scholarship and Outstanding Master Candidate Student of Dalian University of Technology
  • 2007, Outstanding Graduate of Dalian University of Technology
  • 2006, Second-level A, Mandarin Testing of China
  • 2005, Software Engineer (Intermediate professional title)
  • 2004, 2005, 2006, Second-Class Scholarship and Outstanding Student of Dalian University of Technology, respectively

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