Skip to content

Gregory Schopen Bibliography Creator

MLA Style Formatting Guide

Basic Information

  • The format most widely accepted for research papers and citations is that of the Modern Language Association, or MLA Format. Its two published guides are the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, for high school and undergraduate students, and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, for graduate students and professional writers.

  • While MLA provides formatting guidelines for many aspects of paper-writing, including spacing, margins, headers, footnotes, and first-page formatting, it is perhaps most commonly used for in-text citations and the Bibliography, or Works Cited, section.

Basic Guidelines

  • Papers should be printed in black ink on standard, white 8.5x11-inch paper.
  • Text should be double spaced, size 10-12 point, and typed in a clear font, such as Times New Roman.
  • There should be 1-inch margins on all sides of the document, and the first line of each paragraph should be indented and additional ½-inch (5 spaces, or hit the tab key once) from the left margin.
  • Make a header, located on the right-hand side ½-inch from the top of each page. The header should include your last name and the page number. (Instructors often ask that the header is omitted from the first page.)
  • Use italics or underlining for the titles of works you refer to in your paper.
  • Any endnotes should be located on a separate page, before your Works Cited page.


  • Editor(s), ed(s). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
  • Morgan, Emily and Samuel Baker, eds. The Evolution of Chalkboards. New York: Maverick Inc., 2007.


  • Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
  • Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. St. Louis: Herbert S. Stone and Co., 1899.

Book with Editor

  • Editor. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.


If Published:

  • Author. Title. Diss. Degree-Granting School, Year Degree Was Awarded. Place of Publication: UMI, Year of Publication. AAT UMIOrderNumber.

If Unpublished:

  • Author. “Title.” Diss. Degree-Granting School, Year Degree Was Awarded.


  • Author. "Title of the message (if any)." E-mail to person's name. Date of the message.
  • Michael Roth. “New Project Info.” E-mail to Sam Baker. 5 August 2008.

Encyclopedia/Dictionary/Reference Source

  • “Entry Title.” Reference Book Title. Edition. Year.
  • "Carnivore." The Webster Dictionary. 1st ed. 1997.


  • Title. Dir. Name of Director. Perf. Names of Performers as Relevant to your Paper. Film Studio or Distributor, Year of Release.
  • Apollo 13. Dir. Ron Howard. Perf. Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, and Ed Harris. Universal, 1995.

Government Publication

  • Author (if identified). Name of the Government. Name of Agency. Name of Any Subdivisions. Title. Number of the Congress, number of the Session (if congressional document). Place: GPO, Year.
  • United States. Cong. House of Representatives. Judicial Committee. Hearing on Attorney General Appointment Practices. 99th Cong., 1st sess. Washington: GPO, 1996.


  • Last name, First name of Person You Interviewed. Personal Interview. Date of Interview.
  • Maverick, Ben. Personal Interview. 1 Jul. 2008.


  • Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Publication Title Volume Number (Year): Page Range.
  • Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Publication Title Volume Number.Issue Number (Year): Page Range.
  • Jones, Robert. "European History in the 20th Century." Modern History Studies 38 (2002): 213-297.
  • Doe, John. "The Evolution of Media." Pennsylvania Daily 72.4 (2006): 96-100.


  • Speaker’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Speech” or Type of Speech. Meeting or Event where Speech was Given. Location. Date of Delivery.
  • Brown, George. Keynote Address. Engineering Conference. Wilson Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. 17 April 2001.


  • Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages.
  • Klein, Joe. "Open to Debate." Time 7 Aug. 2008: 23-25.

Musical Composition

  • Name of Group or Artist. “Title of Song.” Title of Album. Label, Year.
  • Mayer, John. "Why Georgia.” Room for Squares. Columbia Records, 2003.


  • Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: edition (if applicable): Pages.
  • Rosenbloom, Stephanie. “Giant Retailers Look to Sun for Energy Savings.” New York Times 11 August 2008: A13.


  • Artist’s Name. Title of Work. Year work was created. Institution that houses the work, City where it is located.
  • DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1506. Musee du Louvre, Paris.


  • “Name of Episode.” Name of Series. Network. Station, City. Date of Broadcast.


  • Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Rev. of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical day month year: page.
  • Truman, Mark. "France: Where Art Thou?" Rev. of Majestic City, dir. Michael Roth and Benjamin Schwartz. San Francisco Chronicle 21 April 2006 late ed.: E1.


  • Author’s name (if available). Name of Site. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sometimes found in copyright statements). Date you accessed the site
  • Benson, David. Ankle Replacement Prosthetics. 16 Nov. 2007. University of Maryland. 6 Feb. 2008 <>.

The History of James Joyce Music — Adaptations, Interpretations and Inspirations

a bibliographical chronology of musical works inspired by Joyce

James Joyce loved music. A tenor singer in his youth, Joyce’s writings are filled with musical references and allusions (see Bronze by Gold Heard for more on this). And many musicians are quite fond of James Joyce! Joyce’s ghost is found in nearly every genre of music, from experimental noise and Korean rap to the pillars of classical. Perhaps James Joyce music is actually its own genre, complete with subgenres: Finnegans Wake music; Ulysses music; Dubliners music; Pomes Penyeach music; dirty letters music; and so on.

This bibliography is compiled by Derek Pyle and Krzysztof Bartnicki. It is a work-in-progress; we welcome your additions, submissions, and corrections, so please contact us. You can also read more about Waywords and Meansigns, our project setting Finnegans Wake to music — listen and get involved.

Most references here are self-evident. Whenever possible, we link audio recordings. An old thread from the I Love Music forum provided a couple dozen obscure references, and additional obscure references were found in a post from the Moïcani – L’Odéonie blog. Thanks to John Kearns for suggesting the Contemporary Music Centre database to identify Irish compositions.

The Irish ballad “Finnegan’s Wake” arises in the music-hall tradition of comical Irish songs. Its cyclical story of hod-carrier Tim Finnegan’s fatal, whiskey-prompted fall from a ladder and subsequent resurrection famously provides the basis for Joyce’s novel Finnegans Wake (see 1959, 1962, 1998).

Joyce’s 1907 book of poetry, Chamber Music, was set to music by numerous composers. As Joyce remarked: “The best is Molyneux Palmer. After him are [Ernest Jones] Moeran and [Arthur] Bliss.” Beginning shortly after the book’s first publication, Over the course of three decades Irish opera composer Geoffrey Molyneux Palmer set Chamber Music to music, but the majority of his settings were not discovered until the 1980s.

Karol Szymanowski, one of Poland’s most celebrated composers, composed Siedem pieśni do słów Jamesa Joyce’a (Seven Songs on Words by James Joyce) for voice and piano. Songs five through seven were completed by Adam Neuer.

Joyce’s collection of poems, Pomes Penyeach, was set to music by Ernest Jones Moeran; Arnold Bax; Albert Roussel; Herbert Hughes; John Ireland; Roger Sessions; Arthur Bliss; Herbert Howells; George Antheil; Edgardo Carducci; Eugene Goossens; CW Orr; and Bernard Van Diere. James Joyce Centre has the story. Some of the songs can be found on YouTube.

Joyce completed his final revision of the poem “Post Ulixem Scriptum” also known as “Molly Bloomagain”. Based on an Irish drinking song, the piece represents a transit from Ulysses to Finnegans Wake. (Thanks to Peter Chrisp and the James Joyce Gazette for information on this.)

American composer Samuel Barber sets two of Joyce’s poems, “Of That So Sweet Imprisonment” and “Strings in the Earth and Air“.

Samuel Barber’s “Three Songs, Op. 10” are also poems from Chamber Music. Throughout his career, Barber continued setting Joyce’s words to music. (see 1935, 1937, 1947, 1968, 1971, 1972)

Samuel Barber sets to music Joyce’s poem “In the Dark Pinewood“. (see 1935, 1936, 1947, 1968, 1971, 1972)

Avant-garde composer John Cage wrote “The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs“, which features text from Finnegans Wake. Cage was a big fan of the Wake, continually drawing on the text throughout his career. Luciano Berio and Cathy Berberian would later incorporated Cage’s piece into their repertoire. (see 1979, 1985, 1993)

Samuel Barber’s “Nuvoletta” is adapted from Finnegans Wake. (see 1935, 1936, 1937, 1968, 1971, 1972)

Luciano Berio sets three poems from Chamber Music to music, to be performed by his wife Cathy Berberian. (see 1958, 1959, 2007)

Emerging as a pioneer of electro-music, Italian composer Luciano Berio writes his Thema (Omaggio a Joyce), incorporating Cathy Berberian reading from Ulysses. Berio remixes this piece in his 1961 piece Visage. (see 1953, 1959, 2007)

David Del Tredici wrote his Four Songs on Texts of James Joyce. In a 2002 interview with Tom Voegeli, Del Tredici explained: “I’ve always been a composer dependent on texts. For a number of years I set James Joyce because I was a lapsed Catholic like Joyce. I was drawn to his tortured life, which fit my musical style at the time, which was dissonant and nearly atonal.” (see 1959, 1964, 1965, 1966)

Trumpeter and fledgling composer Phil Lesh performs his big band arrangement “Finnegan’s Awake” at San Mateo College in Northern California. According to Denis McNally’s A Long Strange Trip another early Lesh composition also refers the Wake, “The Sound of a Man Being Habitacularly Fondseed” (FW 4.31). In 1962 Lesh began studying with Berio at Mills College in Oakland, where he was classmates with a young Steve Reich. In 1964 Jerry Garcia convinced to Lesh to give up trumpet and play bass in Garcia’s rock band. This band later became the Grateful Dead. (see 1968, 1975, 1986, 2005, 2009, 2013)

The Clancy Brothers release a rendition of the traditional Irish ballad Finnegan’s Wake with Tommy Makem on an album of traditional Irish drinking songs. The song becomes a staple for the group. (see 1850-1860, 1962, 1998)

David Del Tredici composes “Two Songs on Poems of James Joyce“, revising the work again in 1978. (see 1958, 1965, 1965, 1966)

Irish folk band The Dubliners is founded in Dublin, named after Joyce’s short-story collection. In 1966, The Dubliners record a live album titled Finnegan Wakes, featuring one of the best-known renditions of the ballad “Finnegan’s Wake“. (see 1850-1860, 1959, 1998)

Allan Sherman’s song “Hello Muddah, Hello Fadduh! (A Letter from Camp)“, released as a single and then included on the album My Son, the Nut, includes the lyric “the head coach wants no sissies/ So he reads to us from something called Ulysses“.

David Del Tredici’s arranges Joyce’s poem “I Hear An Army” for soprano and string quartet. (see 1958, 1959, 1965, 1966)

David Del Tredici’s “Night Conjure-Verse” is a song cycle based on two poems from Pomes Penyeach. (see 1958, 1959, 1965, 1966) d

Prior to becoming a songwriter, Leonard Cohen was a novelist. His second novel, Beautiful Losers, was decreed Joycean by the Boston Sunday Herald: “James Joyce is not dead. He lives in Montreal under the name of Leonard Cohen.” This quote was subsequently used to promote Cohen’s 1967 debut album, Songs of Leonard Cohen. (see 1986)

Choreographer Jean Erdman’s The Coach with the Six Insides is a musical play based on Finnegans Wake, with music by Teiji Ito.

André Hodeir releases Anna Livia Plurabelle, a jazz cantata based on Finnegans Wake. (see 1972)

David Del Tredici sets two of Joyce’s Penyach poems as “Syzygy, Two Songs for Two Groups“.(see 1958, 1959, 1964, 1965)

After Bathing at Baxter’s, the album by psychedelic San Francisco band Jefferson Airplane, includes a song about Leopold and Molly Bloom entitled “Rejoyce“.

“Solitary Hotel” in Samuel Barber’s song cycle Despite and Still includes text from Ulysses. (see 1935, 1936, 1937, 1947, 1971, 1972)

According to David Shenk and Steve Silberman in their Skeleton Key: A Dictionary for Deadheads, while the Grateful Dead were recording their album Anthem of the Sun, “instead of the ‘one, two, three’ that kicks off most recording sessions, Robert Hunter would recite sections of James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake by heart”. As Robert Hunter, the Dead’s primary lyricist, explained to Steve Silberman in a 1992 interview: “Before I was writing songs, I was a stoned James Joyce head, Finnegans Wake head. I can still recite the first page and last couple of pages of that thing. There was something in the way those words socketed together, and the wonderful feel of reciting them, that very, very deeply influenced me.” (see 1959, 1968, 1975, 1986, 2005, 2009, 2013)

The Producers, a film and subsequent musical by Mel Brooks, stars Gene Wilder as Leo Bloom. Bloom’s co-star is Max Bialystock, played by Zero Mostel. In the film, the two characters first met each other on June 16, which is the date Ulysses also takes places (and the day is now celebrated as Bloomsday).

Side A of the Firesign Theatre’s How Can You Be in Two Places at Once When You’re Not Anywhere at All concludes with a recitation of Molly Bloom’s soliloquy from Ulysses.


Bernd Alois Zimmermann’s Requiem für einen jungen Dichter (Requiem for a Young Poet) includes text from Molly Bloom’s soliloquy.

Dr. Strangely Strange’s album Kip of the Serenes includes a setting of Joyce’s poem “Strings in the Earth and Air“. (see Robin Williamson, 1972)

Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd releases his solo album The Madcap Laughs. The album features “Golden Hair“, a poem by Joyce from Pomes Penyeach, set to music by Barrett.

Samuel Barber’s “Fadograph of a Yestern Scene” features text from Finnegans Wake. (see 1935, 1936, 1937, 1947, 1968, 1972)

André Hodeir and the Swingle Singer’s Bitter Ending is based on Finnegans Wake.(see 1966)

Samuel Barber’s Opus 45, “Three Songs,” includes Joyce’s translation of “Now I Have Fed and Eaten Up the Rose”, a poem first written in German by Gottfried Keller. (see 1935, 1936, 1937, 1947, 1968, 1972)

Robin Williamson records a version of Dr. Strangely Strange’s arrangement of “Strings in the Earth and Air“. (see Dr. Strangely Strange, 1969)

Electro-music composer Ned Lagin worked with an all-star cast of rock ‘n’ rollers to create an experimental music piece entitled Seastones, which includes spoken passages allegedly influenced by Finnegans Wake. Featuring David Crosby; Jerry Garcia, Phil Lesh, and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead; and Grace Slick, David Freiberg and Spencer Dryden of Jefferson Airplane. Lagin also performed “Seastones” on-stage with the Grateful Dead numerous times in 1974. (see 1959, 1968, 1986, 2005, 2009, 2013)

Composer Roger Marsh’s Not a soul but ourselves… includes text from Finnegans Wake. In recent years, Walsh has overseen the James Joyce audio books produced by Naxo.

Canadian punk band Nomeansno forms, originally consisting of brothers Rob and John Wright. Rob Wright is reportedly a huge fan of Joyce and at least one of the band’s album covers is said to contain a Finnegans Wake quote. (If you know which album has the quote, please tell us!)

John Cage writes perhaps the most famous musical setting of Finnegans Wake. Roaratorio, an Irish circus on Finnegans Wake  premieres on Klaus Schöning radio programme for West German Radio. Modern dance choreographer Merce Cunningham, a longtime collaborator with John Cage, created a dance piece for Roaratorio in 1983. [thanks to Hugo Truyens for more info; Brazen Head had the story but site is now defunct](see 1942, 1985, 1993)

Toru Takemitsu, the great 20th century Japanese composer, composes Far calls. Coming, far! for violin and orchestra. The piece takes its title from the closing passage of Finnegans Wake. (see 1981, 1984, 2009)

Composer and inventor Tod Machover’s “Soft morning, City!” is based on text from Finnegans Wake.

Discussing the Police’s 198ni0 song “De Do Do Do De, De Da Da Da“, Sting said, “Almost eveck yone who reviewed it said, Oh, this is baby talk. They were just listening to the chorus alone, obviously. But they’re the same people who would probably never get through the first paragraph of Finnegan’s Wake, because that’s ‘baby talk’, too.” (see Stewart Copeland, 2014)

Taking his title from the Wake’s closing passage, Toru Takemitsu composes A Way a Lonefor string quartet. The piece is later arranged for orchestra, A Way A Lone II. (see 1980, 1984, 2009)

“My House“, a song on Lou Reed’s album The Blue Mask, includes the lyric “My Dedalus to your Bloom, was such a perfect wit/ and to find you in my house makes things perfect”.

The British rock band Baby Tuckoo is formed, talking their name from a line in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

Pat Metheny’s album Rejoicing, with Charlie Haden and Billy Higgins, is a seeming reference to Joyce. The album includes the track “Humpty Dumpty”; Humpty Dumpty is a major character in the Wake.

One of his “Waterscape” pieces, Toru Takemitsu composes riverrun, borrowing the title from the Wake’s opening. (see 1980, 1981, 2009)

Southern California hardcore punk group Minutemen release their magnum opus, Double Nickels on the Dime. Minutemen bassist Mike Watt has emphasized over the years how the album was influenced by “Jim Joyce” in numerous ways, most obviously on the song “June 16th.” (see 1991, 1997, 2008, 2017)

“Water Torture“, included on Scraping Foetus Off the Wheel’s album Hole, includes reference to Ulysses.

John Cage’s solo organ piece ASLSP takes its title from the Wake. Written on the score of the piece: “The title is an abbreviation of ‘as slow as possible.’ It also refers to ‘Soft morning, city! Lsp!’ the first exclamations in the last paragraph of Finnegans Wake (James Joyce).” By deduction Cage’s 1987 adaptation of ASLSP — a 24-hour piece entitled Organ²/ASLSP (As SLow aS Possible) — also takes its name from the Wake. (see 1942, 1979, 1993)

British post-punk band The Wake released their album Here Comes Everybody.

Game Theory’s album Real Nighttime opens with a brief introductory track entitled “Here Comes Everybody“, a Finnegans Wake reference.

Current 93 and Sickness of Snakes release a 12″ split with a quote from Finnegans Wake written on the album’s spine: “Brékkek Kékkek Kékkek Kékkek! Kóax Kóax Kóax! Ualu Ualu Ualu! Quaouauh!” Current 93’s song “Killy Kill Killy (A Fire Sermon)” is dedicated to James Joyce.

Jerry Garcia and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead join mythologist Joseph Campbell and Jungian analyst John Weir Perry for “Ritual and Rapture, From Dionysus to the Grateful Dead”, a day of discussion and music at San Francisco’s Palace of the Fine Arts. When asked about his meeting with Campbell in a 1987 interview, Garcia explained: “I was a Joseph Campbell fan back in the early ’60s when I read theSkeleton Key to Finnegans Wake. Which I was fascinated by, and Finnegans Wake — I was fascinated by James Joyce in the early ’60s.”(see 1959, 1968, 1975, 2005, 2009, 2013)

Barry Truax composes “Riverrun” using granular synthesis.

“Secret Girls” on Sonic Youth’s EVOL album has an apparent Ulysses reference with the lyric “My mother used to say/ You’re the boy that can enjoy invisibility.” The lyrics “I AM THE BOY/ THAT CAN ENJOY/ INVISIBILITY” appear in Ulysses, as Stephen Dedalus recalls a song from the musical Turko the Terrible. (see 2008)

Asked about James Joyce’s influence on his songwriting, Leonard Cohen explains that a select few passages from Joyce had great impact on him: “‘The Dead.’ That paragraph. It’s not the work of an author, but maybe five lines. It’s those five lines that will get me reluctantly to explore the rest of the guy’s work. But that paragraph I’ve never forgotten. There’s that paragraph “Snow was general all over Ireland.” It described the snow. It’s Montreal. It’s our snow, our black iron gates in Montreal. It was perfect and the other one was – I believe it was from the Portrait. He sees this women with seaweed on her thigh. That passage, and snow general all over Ireland, and David seeing Bathsheba on the roof. There are three or four scenes like that that destroyed my life. I couldn’t escape those visions. Now I feel I’m overthrowing them. (see 1966)

Hans Zender premieres his Joyce-inspired opera Stephen Climax.

Current 93’s album Swastikas for Goddy includes a quote from Finnegans Wake in the liner notes: “When all vegetation is covered by the flood there are now eyebrows on the face of the Waterworld.”

Myron Myers and Erik Levi ‎release Pomes Penyeach: Settings Of Poetry By James Joyce on the Musical Heritage Society label.

The band Nation of Ulysses forms in the Washington D.C. post-punk scene.

The North American version of The Pogues’ If I Should Fall from Grace with God includes a picture of James Joyce on the album cover.

Irish singer-songwriter Barry Moore dons the new performance name of Luka Bloom in 1987, releasing his eponymous album in 1988. “Luka” is said to be a reference to the Suzanne Vega song, “Bloom” a reference to Ulysses‘s Leopold Bloom. (In recent years, Suzanne Vega also told The Guardian that she enjoys reading James Joyce.)

1989Vladimir Estragon
Eclectic pop musician Kate Bush requested permission from the James Joyce Estate to use Molly Bloom’s soliloquy (the final passage in Ulysses) on the title track of Bush’s album The Sensual World. Her request was finally approved, in 2011.

Named after a line from Ulysses, The Sweets of Sin release their eponymous debut album with Jarra Hill Records.

Hector Zazou’s Géologies contains the tracks “…Livia…”, “…Plurabelle”, and “Anna…”. (“Anna…” was only included on the CD version.)

The band Vladimir Estragon releases Three Quarks for Muster Mark taking the album’s title from Finnegans Wake. (see Phil Minton, 1996, 2017)

Bassist Mike Watt’s band fIREHOSE releases the song “Up Finnegan’s Ladder” on their album Flying the Flannel. (see 1984, 1997, 2008, 2017)

Derelicts of Dialect, the second album from the hip hop group 3rd Bass, features the song “Portrait of the Artist as a Hood“.

Deacon Blue’s album Fellow Hoodlums includes the song “James Joyce Soles“.

The lyrics of “Endless Art“, a song on A House’s EP Bingo, are a list of famous artists who have died. This list includes James Joyce.

Nicholas Hopkins composes “Joyce Transcription I” for piano: “what I want to achieve most of all in this work is the multiplicity of sense that Joyce so astutely developed in his final book”. (see 1994)

Peter Myers publishes The Sound of Finnegans Wake, arguing that there is a “genuinely musical layer” in Joyce’s book.

The Northern Irish band Therapy? releases their album Pleasure Death. The song “Potato Junkie” repeats the refrain “James Joyce is fucking my sister.”

Able Tasmans’ song “A Conversation with Mark Byrami” on their Somebody Ate My Plant album includes the lyric “James Joyce, the lost people’s voices/ how do you say things so radically stupid and wise”.

Punk rocker Joey Ramone recorded a rendition of “The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs“, a piece written by John Cage (see 1942). Joey’s recording was included on Caged/Uncaged—A Rock/Experimental Homage to John Cage, an album that also featured David Byrne, Lou Reed, and Debbie Harry. (see 1942, 1979, 1985)

John Wolf Brennan’s Text, Context, Co-Text & Co-Co-Textfor solo piano is inspired by Finnegans Wake and to a lesser extent, Ulysses. (see 1994, 2005)

Alfred Crumlish created chance structure “instructions for composing songs derived from Finnegans Wake by James Joyce” entitled “26 Songs from Finnegans Wake“.

The Hell’s Kitchen Opera Company produced an opera based on one of Joyce’s short stories entitled “The Dead: a one-act opera”. Directed by Linda Lehr, with music by Murray Boren and libretto by Glen Nelson.

Belgium musicians Jean-Louis Aucremanne, Alain Lemaître, Richard Redcrossed, Henry Krutzen name their new prog band Finnegans Wake.

Irish jazz guitarist Louis Stewart releases his Joyce-inspired album Joycenotes.

Papa Sprain’s final commercial single, the 7″ TechYes, includes a sampling of Finnegans Wake on the title track. The sample is taken from a RTÉ documentary on Joyce, and the audio is thought to be Joyce reading from the Wake. Papa Sprain also recorded an album for Rough Trade called Finglas Since The Flood, based entirely on Finnegans Wake, which was never released. The album allegedly has two versions, one recorded in 1993 and one in 1996. This post from Bubblegum Cage III discusses the unreleased album, with a good deal of additional information provided (and debated) in the comments. (see also 2017)

Butterfly Child releases Onomatopoeia, which is heavily influenced by Joyce. Like Finnegans Wake, the album is cyclical, starting wih the song “Ave and ending with “Eva”. Joe Cassidy of Butterfly Child also described the opening lyrics of “Queen Glass” as particularly Joyce-inspired. (see also Joe Cassidy, 2017)

Nicholas Hopkins re-works his 1992 piece “Joyce Transcription I” as “Double on Joyce Transcription I” for piano with modified tape: “Double on Joyce Transcription I is the sixth in a projected cycle of pieces that act as musical commentaries on James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake. Each piece in the cycle is based on one of the seventeen chapters of the book, and in each I attempt to transcribe Joyce’s literary operations into musical ones.”

John Wolf Brennan’s Epithalamium for chamber ensemble is inspired byJames joyce’s poems, Chamber Music. (see 1993, 2005)

Martyn Bates set Chamber Music to music, released in two volumes. The first volume appeared in 1996 on the Sub Rosa record label. (see 1996, 2017)

Martyn Bates set Chamber Music to music, released in two volumes. The second volume appeared in 1996 on the Sub Rosa record label. (see 1994, 2017)

Creating an album from texts of Finnegans Wake, Phil Minton releases his Mouthfull of Ecstasy. (see 2017; also Vladimir Estragon, 1989)

New Zealand free improv trio Sandoz Lab Technican’s album “Unhemmed As It Is Uneven” takes its title from a line in Finnegans Wake. (see Tim Cornelius, 2017)

The Kevin Norton Trio’s album Integrated Variables, with Mark Dresser and George Cartwright, includes the song “Flow to Riverrun”.

Composer Michael Hynes’s “The softest mourning” is based on the closing lines of Finnegans Wake. (see 1997)

Indiana band emiLy releases their album riverrun. The original album art design featured text from the Wake and the title track begins with the melody of “Finnegan’s Wake”. The track “Talking God, Talking Girls” includes a recording of Joyce reading from the Wake.

Mike Watt releases his first solo album, a punk rock opera entitled Contemplating the Engine Room. Describing the daily life of his father, Watt reports that his album takes structural and content cue from the Odyssey and Ulysses. (see 1984, 1991, 2008, 2017)

Composer Michael Hynes’s “4four” is said to be based on the Mamalujo motif found in Finnegans Wake. Reference: Moïcani – L’Odéonie blog post. (see 1996)

Dropkick Murphys, the pride of Boston, record a version of the traditional ballad “Finnegan’s Wake“. (see 1850-1850, 1959, 1962)

James Joyce’s The Dead, a musical by Richard Nelson and Shaun Davey, based on Joyce’s short story “The Dead”. Premiered on Broadway in 2000, winning a Tony for “Best Book of a Musical”.

Andreas Vollenweider’s “Your Silver Key” on the album Cosmopoly features Carly Simon singing text from Finnegans Wake.

Celtic punk band Black 47 released “I Got Laid on James Joyce’s Grave“, on their album Trouble in the Land.

Talib Kweli and Hi-Tek’s hip hop duo Reflection Eternal reference James Joyce on their Train of Thought album. The song “Memories Live” includes the lyric “it kinda make me think of way back when/ I was the portrait of the artist as a young man”.

The title of Wilco’s never completed album, Here Comes Everybody, is a reference to Finnegans Wake reference. Some of the album’s material was later included on Wilco’s Yankee Hotel Foxtrot. (see 2008)

Amber’s song “Yes!” was number one on the US Dance charts. The song was based on Molly Bloom’s soliloquy in Ulysses and the lead single to Amber’s 2002 album Naked.

Ted Leo and The Pharmacists song “M¥ Vien iLin“, on their album The Tyranny of Distance, includes two verses referencing Joyce: “We make our days as they make us/ As I must as Odysseus/ Make myself my own Telemachus/ ‘Bous Stephanos, Stephanoumenos Dedalus!'” followed by “And if it hasn’t been a bust/ Then land-ho, Ulysseus/ And all of us like Dedalus/ Dead, dead all of us”.

The band Two Gallants forms, taking their name from the short story in Dubliners.

Presumably taking their band name from Joyce’s posthumously published book, Stephen Hero releases their first full-length album Darkness & The Day.

Sean Walsh’s film Bloom featured soundtrack written and produced by David Kahne. Kahne is a noted record producer and composer, as well as Joyce enthusiast. (see 2016)

W.A.C.O. aka Wild Acoustic Chamber Orchestra releases Finnegan’s W.A.C.O. (see Steve Gregoropoulos, 2016, 2017)

DJ Spooky aka Paul D. Miller’s book Rhythm Science references Joyce a couple times. The book’s accompanying CD includes a remix track of Joyce reading from the Wake, “Oval vs Yoshihiro Hanno April Remix mixed w/ James Joyce Anna Livia Plurabelle (Finnegans Wake)“. (see 2008)

In the first volume of his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Bob Dylan described a conversation with Archie MacLeish, with reference to James Joyce: “Goddard Lieberson, president of Columbia Records, had given me [Ulysses] as a gift, a first-edition copy of the book and I couldn’t make hide nor hair of it. James Joyce seemed like the most arrogant man who ever lived, had both his eyes wide open and great faculty of speech, but what he say, I knew not what. I wanted to ask MacLeish to explain James Joyce to me, to make sense of something that seemed so out of control, and I knew that he would have, but I didn’t” (p. 130). (Goddard Lieberson reportedly composed choral arrangements of Joyce’s text, but little information is available on this — if anyone has more info, please let us know.) (see 2009)

Ben Watson dedicates his Resonance FM show “Late Lunch With Out To Lunch” to juxtaposing recordings of Frank Zappa’s guitar solo with readings from Finnegans Wake. (Ben Watson also mentions Finnegans Wake in his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Frank Zappa.)

When asked by Chicago Tribune reporter Nina Metz, “What reading material would we find in your bathroom?”, former Grateful Dead bassist simply answers “Finnegans Wake by James Joyce”. (see 1959, 1968, 1975, 1986, 2009, 2013)

The Medicine Show Theatre Ensemble performs a musical adaptation of Finnegans Wake.

John Wolf Brennan’s song “Looking for Mr Ulysses” is released on his album I.N.I.T.I.A.L.S. – Sources along the Songlines 1979-91. (see 1993, 1994)

Beck’s song “Qué Onda Guero” on his album Guero features a man unexpectedly saying “James Joyce” and then shouting “Michael Bolton”.

South Korean hip hop duo Epik High reference James Joyce and Finnegans Wake in their “Follow the Flow“, a song featuring MYK and D-Tox.

Electronic band Crystal Castles released “Air War“, which features sampling from Luciano Berio and Cathy Berberian’s adaptation of Ulysses. (see 1953, 1958, 1959)

UK label Fire Records released a compilation album of various musicians performing the poems of Chamber Music. The album includes Monica Queen, War Against Sleep, Ed Harcourt, Jessica Bailiff, Venture Lift, Virgin Passages, Htrk, Califone, Mike Watt, Owen Tromans, Airport Studies, Text of Light, Mary Lorson, Willy Mason, Noahjohn, Ian Kearey, Abigail Hopkins and David Hurn, Coldharbourstores, The Minus 5, Lori Scacco, The Great Depression, Puerto Muerto, Mercury Rev, Flying Saucer Attack, Sweet Trip, Little Sparta and Gerry Mitchell, Sphyr, Mountain Men Anonymous, Tenebrous Liar, Green Pajamas, Gravenhurst, Christian Kiefer, Duke Garwood, The Lovetones, and Kinski. Jim O’Rourke, Jeff Tweedy of Wilco, Wayne Kramer, Bark Psychosis, and the Silent League were all rumored to be involved in earlier stages. (Monica Queen, see Tenement & Temple, 2017; Mary Lorson, see 2015; Mercury Rev, see Old Fiends, 2017; Text of Light, see Sonic Youth, 1986, and Ulrich Krieger, 2017; Tweedy/Wilco, see 2001; Watt, see 1984, 1991, 1997; many artists also involved in Waywords and Meansigns, see 2017)

DJ Spooky aka Paul D. Miller’s book Sound Unbound refers Joyce in passing, and the book’s accompanying CD features a remix track of Erik Satie and James Joyce reading the Aeolus speech from Ulysses: “James Joyce/Erik Satie, ‘Eolian Episode/Gnossiene (DJ Spooky Dub Version)’“. (see 2004)

The song “Helpless Corpses Enactment“, on metal band Sleepytime Gorilla Museum’s album In Glorious Times, is written entirely with lyrics from Finnegans Wake.

I’m listening to Billy Joe Shaver/And I’m reading James Joyce/Some people tell me I got the blood of the land in my voice. A lyric from Bob Dylan’s song “I Feel A Change Comin’ On”, featured on the album Together Through Life. The entire album was co-written with former Grateful Dead lyricist and noted Joycean Robert Hunter. In an interview with Rolling Stone, Bob Dylan explained how he first heard Billy Joe Shaver’s song through Waylon Jennings. “Waylon played me ‘Ain’t No God in Mexico,’ and I don’t know, it was quite good… Shaver and David Allen Coe became my favorite guys in that [outlaw country] genre. The verse came out of nowhere. No … you know something? Subliminally, I can’t say that this is actually true. But I think it was more of a Celtic thing. Tying Billy Joe with James Joyce. I think subliminally or astrologically those two names just wanted to be combined. Those two personalities.” (see 2004)

Handsomeboy Technique, the DJ moniker of Yoshitaka Morino, releases his album Terrestrial Tone Cluster, containing the song “Guiding Lights (Far Calls, Coming, Far)“. The phrase “Far calls. Coming, far!” appears in the closing passage of the Wake (p. 628, ln. 13), although Morino could have encountered the title by way of Toru Takemitsu’s 1980 piece. (If anyone has information on how to contact Yoshitaka Morino, please let us know.)

Electronic musician Scanner’s album Rockets Unto The Edges of Edges includes the song “Anna Livia Plurabelle”.

Ambient artist Robert Haigh’s album Anonymous Lights includes the song “Along the Riverrun“.

Indie pop band Trevor Sensitive and the Locals include the song “I’ve read Finnegans Wake” on their album Sensitive.

Noise band Eigenstate’s album In Blotch and Void includes the songs “A Way A Lone A Last A Loved A Long” and “His Mouthful Of Ecstasy”.

Chris Rael’s song cycle “Araby” retells the stories of Dubliners. Produced twice Off-Broadway, “Araby” won the New York International Fringe Festival’s Excellence in Music Composition Award in 2011. Some of the performances are available online here; the original demos for the song cycle can be heard here. (see 2017)

Early electronic music pioneers Tangerine Dream release an album entitled Finnegans Wake.

William Averitt composes “From Dreams” for choir with piano and viola. The piece has three movements, each incorporating text from Joyce’s poems: “Gentle lady, do not sing Sad songs”; “Sleep now, O sleep now”; and “O cool is the valley”.

Citing James Joyce as one of his favorite authors, Car Seat Head Rest references Joyce in his song “The Drum“.

Der Nino aus Wien’s album Schwunder includes the songs “Plurabelle” and “Finnegans Wake”.

The Curiously Strong Peppermints’ concept album Echoes from the Ultraviolet Fuzz includes the rise and fall of Anna Livia Plurabelle.

Composer Robert Paterson’s A New Eaarth warns about the dangers of climate change with relying on “poems and quotes from around the world, including texts by Wendell Barry, James Joyce, Percy Bysshe Shelly and William Wordsworth. The text and poems allude to the four ancient, classical elements—earth, air, fire and water.”

“The King of Ithaca“, the final track on Chris Lewis’s album Paradise and Vu Du is an homage to James Joyce.

Composer and ESP-Disk manager Steve Holtje records a song-cycle of Joyce’s Pomes Penyeach.

Jork Weismann’s book Asleep at the Chateau is a collection of celebrities photographed while asleep at Chateau Marmont in Los Angeles. Patti Smith is seen snoozing with Finnegans Wake. (see 2016)

Polish translator Krzysztof Bartnicki publishes Da Capo al Finne. The text removes all characters from Finnegans Wake except for A B C D E F G H, thus turning the text into a musical score. (In German key notation, B is B flat and H is B natural.) Bartnicki’s Soundcloud page include excerpts of this score, which bear resemblance to Star Wars, Chopin, the Star Spangled Banner and more. Bartnicki has sent numerous letters to John Williams, seeking to determine who is the author of the Star Wars pieces — Joyce, Williams or Bartnicki? (see 2014, 2016, 2017)

Dylan Mattingly composes “A Way A Lone A Last A Loved A Long the Riverrun“, commissioned and performed by the group contemporaneous.

Composer Victoria Bond premieres “Cyclops” scored for speakers, choir, violin, clarinet and piano, at Symphony Space as part of the opening event of the Cutting Edge Concerts New Music Festival in New York City.

Gregor von Holdt arranges a playful version of “Anna Livia Plurabelle“.

Wakean printmaker and artist Nicci Haynes creates sound piece “James Joyce reading from Finnegans Wake read by James Joyce, arranged for 20-note paper strip musical movement“. (see 2016)

Lyricist Indi Riverflow penned “Riverrun“, a song about the Wake, for John Kadlecik. Kadlecik is best known as a Grateful Dead-styled guitarist, playing in Dark Star Orchestra and Furthur. Riverflow also wrote a song “Here Comes Everybody“. (Grateful Dead, see 1959, 1968, 1975, 1986, 2005, 2009)

The band Zijnzijn Zijnzijn! takes their name from Finnegans Wake; the cover on their Demos album is a reproduced page of the Wake. Their album Wordwounder also takes its titles from the Wake.

The Australian band Cats of Copenhagen include the song “Riverrun” on their Wheatgrass EP.

Stewart Copeland, best known as drummer of the Police, has an “obsession” with Joyce. According the Herald, Copeland wrote at least half the libretto for an opera based on Finnegans Wake, but was ultimately unable to obtain permissions from the Joyce Estate. “It got as far as negotiating with the opera company but he had rather an exaggerated idea of what opera can pay. That’s where it fell apart.” (see the Police, 1980)

English composer Stephen Crowe sets the infamous love letters to music: The Dorty Letters of James Joyce.

Irish musician Ken Cotter releases Anatomy of a Goddess, an album inspired by Ulysses.

In an interview with York’s The Press, the British rapper and poet Kate Tempest cites James Joyce as an influence: “William Blake cuts me to the core, and it’s the same with James Joyce; I couldn’t believe how he wrote. It was the same when listening to Wu-Tang Clan at 14; I’d never heard language like that in storytelling.”

Romanian electronic group Plurabelle releases their debut album “Phantom Pyramid“.

The dance company Riverdance uncharacteristically adds a new song to their repertoire, entitled “Anna Livia“.

Paweł Paide Dunajko remixes Krzysztof Bartnicki’s Finnegans Wake-derived music for Radio Alternator. Bartnicki publishes James Joyce: Finnegans ake. Suite in the Key of E, using cross-cultural musical notation systems to seek a musical score with the Wake, claiming that only 4% of the Wake cannot be deciphered musically. (see 2012, 2016, 2017)

Folk metal band Kernunna’s albunm “The Seim Anew” is a reference to the Wake and includes the songs “The Seim Anew”, “The Keys to. Given!” and “Ricorso”.

Waywords and Meansigns releases the First Edition, setting Finnegans Wake to music unabridged. Each chapter is recorded by a separate artist or group. Contributors mentioned elsewhere in this bibliography include Hayden Chisholm and Peter Quadrino.

The title track on composer Wiel Conen and singer Charlotte Gilissen’s album Charlotte’s Drone includes text from Ulysses.(see 2017)

Joanna Newsom’s song “Time, a Symptom” on her Divers album contains reference to the closing passage of the Wake: “Joy! Again, around–a pause, a sound–a song: a way a lone a last a loved a long“.

Woodwind instrumentalist and composer Seán Mac Erlaine performs Alas Awake in Dublin, a site-specific homage to the Wake. (see 2017)

The Science of Deduction’s album Blue Ocean Rising, Red Blood Running includes a track “James Joyce is Going Blind“. (see 2017)

Composer Julia Barnes created a song cycle with nine poems of Joyce’s Pomes Penyeach and select accompanying Dutch translations.

The title track on Tom Robinson’s Only the Now is inspired in part by Ulysses.

Melanie O’Reilly’s celtic-jazz album Ceol Ceantair/District Music is inspired in part by the work James Joyce.

Sound artist Rui Gato’s EP Chaosmos borrows its title from the Wake.

Nick Roth composes “A Way A Lone A Last, for recorder trio” for Trio Invento. (see 2017, 2018)

Waywords and Meansigns releases the Second Edition, setting Finnegans Wake to music unabridged a second time. Each chapter is recorded by a separate artist or group. Contributors mentioned elsewhere in this bibliography include Steve Gregoropoulos, Nicci Haynes (cover art), David Kahne, Mary Lorson, Mr. Smolin and Double Naughty Spy Car, and Maharadja Sweets.

Maharadja Sweets releases The Caprice of Young Gods, featuring “The Giant Awakes Again“, a song inspired by the Wake. (see previous entry, and 2017)

The Irish hip hop comedy duo the Rubberbandits learn how to become true artists from James Joyce and Samuel Beckett in the Rubberbandit’s Guide to the Internet, produced by RTÉ.

Josephine Foster releases No More Lamps in the Morning on Fire Records, featuring a musical arrangement of Joyce’s poem “My Dove, My Darling“.

Jonathan Brielle premieres his musical Himself and Nora, about the relationship between Joyce and his wife Nora Barnacle.

Grant Morgan, a sophomore at The Peak School in Frisco, wins the Summit Music and Arts Young Composer Competition for his Joyce-inspired piece “Finnegans Fall”.

When asked about the legacy of the Allman Brothers Band, drummer Butch Trucks said, “What I’m most proud of is taking the door that Cream opened with rock improvisation and adding John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Charlie Parker and jazz into the mixture… Charlie Parker is probably the greatest example of this. I mean, listening to Charlie Parker is like reading James Joyce. You’ve got to really dig into it, and if you really climb into what he’s doing, the melody is there, it’s like deep listening.”

The Wall Street Journalphotographs Patti Smith’s copy of Finnegans Wake. “The book is a first edition… signed by James Joyce in green ink. The book is almost unreadable—but as an object it’s beautiful.” (see 2012)

The River Has Many Voices cites Joyce as an inspiration for his songwriting: “Books and poems have been some of my favorite music. They reach a depth of musicality that much music is too limited to reach… James Joyce showed me how the number of chords are endless in prose.”

Composer Dave Malloy is working on “Impossible Novels Trilogy“, which includes setting Moby Dick and Ulysses to music.

Liam Wade composes an eight-song cycle for tenor and piano, based on James Joyce’s Chamber Music.

Composer and saxophonist Hayden Chisholm released Finn Again Wakes, an album setting passages of the Wake to music.

David Mowat’s Comprivations, performed at Saint Stephen’s Church on Bloomsday,  combines musical improvisation and readings of Joyce.

Mr. Smolin and Double Naughty Spy Car release an instrumental version of their recording for Waywords and Meansigns, entitled That Tragoady Thundersday.

Rapper Vince Staples includes the lyric “I write the James Joyce/ Don’t need the Rolls Royce” in his song “Loco” off his Prima Donna EP.

Camille O’Sullivan and Paul Kelly’s Ancient Rain recounts 100 years of Irish writing, set to music. The performance includes an acted out scene from Joyce’s short story “The Dead”.

Taylor Mac’s drag and cabaret inspired “A 24-Decade History of Popular Music” includes what one reviewer called “a surreal dance-off between a group of ukulele-strumming Tiny Tims and a bunch of tap-dancers dressed in Grecian robes in a fanciful homage to James Joyce’s Ulysses.”

In his autobiography Born to Run, Bruce Springsteen recalls how when Mike Appel first heard Springsteen’s early demos — the seeds of Greetings from Asbury Park — “he compared me to Dylan, Shakespeare, James Joyce and Bozo the Clown”.

Los Angeles band Night Talks releases a song about Leopold Bloom called “Mr. Bloom“.

Jazz guitarist Larry Coryell was working on an opera based on Ulysses. It is unclear whether he finished the work before his death in 2017. In September 2016 Coryell told the Maui Time, “Joyce is more like a jazz musician than most authors… I wouldn’t go through the trouble except my initial musical ideas in the early going of the so-called ‘story’ seem to be effective, so I will soldier on, slowly extracting content from the book and converting it to music.”

Austin Classical Guitar’s performance nocturne [end] includes passages of Finnegans Wake, read by Peter Quadrino and Derek Otto. (Peter Quadrino, see 2015, 2017)

Polish translator Krzysztof Bartnicki performs a concert of Finnegans Wake derived music in Bytom, Poland. The highlight is an imitation of David Bowie’s “Warszawa“. Bartnicki’s work is also presented in Warsaw’s National Gallery. (see 2012, 2014, 2017)

Roger Doyle’s Frail Things in Eternal Places culls song titles from lines of Finnegans Wake.


Waywords and Meansigns releases the Opendoor Edition, featuring 125 artist and musicians collaboratively setting Finnegans Wake to music. Contributors mentioned elsewhere in this bibliography include Krzysztof Bartnicki, Matt Battle, Joe Cassidy, Hayden Chisholm, Coldharbourstores, Wiel Conen and Charlotte Gilissen, Tim Cornelius, Steve Gregoropoulos, Abigail Hopkins and David Hurn, Kinski, Little Sparta, Seán Mac Erlaine, Phil Minton, Old Fiends, Papa Sprain, Ulrich Krieger, Maharadja Sweets, Peter Quadrino, Chris Rael, The Science of Deduction, Tenement & Temple, Owen Tromans, Venture Lift, Mike Watt.

Matt Battle’s album What’s it all about? includes the track “Ulysses“. (see previous entry, 2017)

Nick Roth’s “A Loved A Long” is a solo flute adaptation of his piece his “A Way A Lone A Last”. The piece was commissioned by the dlr LexIcon and composed for flautist Lina Andonovska. (see 2015, 2018)

Composer Roger Alsop’s “Finnegan’s Wake Ava Reading” [sic] is a computer-generated reading of the Wake.

Noise band ego arcadia releases their album “riverrun“.

Waywords and Meansigns continues to add tracks to the Opendoor Edition. New contributors mentioned elsewhere in this bibliography include Nick Roth, included in the Opendoor Edition as O’Connor / Roth / Tokar / Doherty.