This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 01:23:00
General Model for Citing Books in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography System
Footnote or endnote (N):
1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
Corresponding bibliographical entry (B):
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
Book by one author
1. Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Viking Press, 1958), 128.
Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958.
Book by multiple authors
Two or more authors should be listed in the order they appear as authors, and not necessarily alphabetically.
2. Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.
Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.
Translated work with one author
3. Julio Cortázar, Hopscotch, trans. Gregory Rabassa (New York: Pantheon Books, 1966), 165.
Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.
Book with author and editor
In notes, CMOS prefers the abbreviation of “editor(s)” as “ed.” or “eds.,” and translator(s) as “trans.” In bibliographic entries, these abbreviations are not used. Instead, titles are spelled out in full. This information appears in the MLA Handbook, section 14.103.
4. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.
Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Chapter from a single-authored book
CMOS supplies two correct forms for bibliographic entries. Both are noted here.
5. Gloria Anzaldua, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” in Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera, (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987): 53-64.
Anzaldua, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” In Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987.
Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987. See esp. chap. 5, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.”
Contributions from an edited collection with various authored chapters
When citing work by a single author that appears in a book with multiple authors, the contributing author’s name is cited first, followed by the title of their contribution, the word 'in' and the title of the book, along with the name(s) of the editors, and other standard information.
5. Phillip Appleman, “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie,” in Good Poems, ed. Garrison Keillor (New York: Penguin, 2002), 12.
Appleman, Phillip. “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie.” In Good Poems, edited by Garrison Keillor, 12. New York: Penguin, 2002.
Introduction, Preface, or Afterwords in a Book
Unlike other citations for books, bibliographic entries of this kind include the page number range for the part cited.
6. Steven Pinker, introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, ed. John Brockman (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), xxv.
Pinker, Steven. Introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, xxiii-xxxiii. Edited by John Brockman. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.
Anonymous works--Unknown authorship
Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. Follow the basic format for "Footnote or Endnote" and "Corresponding Bibliographical Entry" that are exemplified above omitting author and/or editor names and beginning respective entries with the title of the source.
Citing indirect sources
Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago requires the use of "quoted in" for the note:
7. Ian Hacking, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 103, quoted in Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society (New York: Continuum, 2006), 2.
Self-published or Privately Published Books
Books published by the author should be cited according to information available on the title page or copyright page. In place of publisher, include language such as “self-published” (abbreviated as “self-pub” in notes, but not a bibliography) or “printed by the author” is usually appropriate. For self-published e-books, add the name of the application or device required to read the book or the name of the file format, or both.
Kathleen Long, Chasing Rainbows: A Novel (self-pub., CreateSpace, 2011).
This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) and provides only selected citation examples for commonly used sources, and of notes/bibliography style only. For more detailed information, directly consult a print copy or online version of the style manual available at the SFU Library and at the SFU Bookstore.
Chicago style is sometimes referred to as Turabian style, which is a modified version of Chicago style, and which is outlined in Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7thed. [print].
For the best printing results, use the printer-friendly PDF format of this guide.
Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.
General notes on Chicago Style
Chicago style outlines two distinct citation styles (14.2):
- Notes/bibliography style, also known as "Humanities style." Sources are cited through footnotes (or endnotes) and a bibliography
- Author/date style, also known as "Scientific/Social Sciences style." Sources are cited through parenthetical author/date references in the text and a reference list
Please note that this guide covers only the Humanities style.
It is recommended practice, but not absolutely necessary, to cite your sources in both the notes and the bibliography. The practice of including both notes and a bibliography is still common practice amongst humanities scholars, so make sure to consult your instructor.
If you choose not to include a bibliography in your paper or choose to create only a partial list of references, you must provide full details of the sources you cited in your notes. (The first time you mention a work in the notes, you must provide full publication details. All subsequent notes of the same work can be written in short form.) If, on the other hand, your bibliography includes all sources cited in the notes, you need not provide full publication details in the notes since a reader can consult the bibliography (14.14).
Your paper must be double-spaced. It is conventional to single-space footnotes and bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.
Every page of the paper must be assigned a page number, including blank pages, appendices, and bibliography. Arabic numerals are centered or flush right at the top of the page.
You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words (13.1 - 13.6). You need to cite:
- to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay
- to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources
A citation must appear in two places in your essay (14.19):
- in the notes (footnotes or endnotes)
- in the bibliography (at the end of your paper)
To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples:
Use Webster's Third New International Dictionary [print] and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary [print] for standard spelling references for all Chicago citations (7.1).
You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your notes and bibliography (13.6).
References in text: footnotes and endnotes (14.14 - 14.60)
In Chicago notes/bibliography style, footnotes or endnotes are used to cite quotes, paraphrases, and other in-text references (14.14-14.60).
- Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page in the research paper
- Endnotes are numbered citations listed at the end of the research paper
To cite a source, a small superscript (raised) number is placed after each in-text reference. Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order (14.20). For example:
Each numbered reference then corresponds to a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source (14.14). The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by a period.
Citations in notes are single-spaced (unless otherwise instructed), but there is a double space between entries. The first line is indented.
References in text: shortened citations (14.108, 14.111, 14.275, 14.29-14.36)
The first in-text reference to a given source must be cited in full with the name of the author/s, title of the work, place of publication, name of the publisher, and page number/s of the cited reference (14.19-14.20). For example:
Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference (14.25). For example:
Immediately following notes that refer to the same source may be shortened even further to "ibid." (short for 'ibidem' - the Latin word for "in the same place") and the appropriate page reference (14.34). For example:
Bibliography (14.19 - 14.23; 14.61 - 14.71)
The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography. This list must include all references cited in the text of your paper (14.62 - 14.71).
In the bibliography, entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names. If no author or editor is provided, the work's title may be used instead (14.65).
Entries are double-spaced, but single-spacing is used within each entry. The second and subsequent lines are indented.
When the bibliography includes multiple entries by the same author listed together, a 3-em dash may be used to replace the author's name after the first entry (14.67 - 14.70). For example:
For more information about how to format your bibliography, see sections 14.61 - 14.71.
Common abbreviations (10.1 - 10.69)
When books have editors, translators, or compilers, the following abbreviations are used (10.42, 14.72 - 14.84):
- one editor - ed. / two or more editors - eds.
- translators - trans.
- one compiler - comp. / two or more compilers - comps.
For editions of books other than the first, the edition number (or description) and the abbreviation "ed." are placed after the book's title in all notes and bibliographic citations (14.112 - 14.115). For example:
- second edition - 2nd ed.
- revised edition - rev. ed.